Whole plant (excluding root)
This section is a list of chemical entities identified in this dietary supplement to possess pharmacological activity. This list does not imply that other, yet unidentified, constituents do not influence the pharmacological activity of this dietary supplement nor does it imply that any one constituent possesses greater influence on the overall pharmacological effect of this dietary supplement.
alkaloids (including ent-norsecurinine);(1
) lignans (including phyllanthine and hypophyllanthine); phenols and terpenes; bioflavonoids (including quercetin).(2
, commonly termed bahupatra or bhuiamla in the Hindu Ayurvedic system of medicine, has been traditionally used as a medicinal agent in many ethnic cultures around the world. Usually found in central and southern India, it can grow to 1-2 feet in height and have blooms with many yellow flowers. Phyllanthus species are found in other countries, including China (Phyllanthus urinaria
), the Philippines, Cuba, Nigeria, and Guam.(3
) Traditional uses of phyllanthus include jaundice, gonorrhea, frequent menstruation, dysentery, and diabetes. It is used topically as a poultice for skin ulcers, sores, swelling, and itchiness. Current research with Phyllanthus species focuses on the use in viruses, specifically the hepatitis B virus.(4
Of note is a presentation at the 3rd International Congress on Phytomedicine in Munich, which reported that a standardized extract of phyllanthus had inhibiting properties on both COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in laboratory studies.(6) With these preliminary results, phyllanthus seemingly has the ability to inhibit two of the pro-inflammatory enzymes (COX-2 and iNOS), making it potentially useful in the fight against inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.
There is another species of phyllanthus that is commonly used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and should not be confused with the ones in this monograph - Phyllanthus emblica, an antioxidant and liver protective agent used in chronic pancreatitis among other conditions.
200mg, 2-4 times a day.
200mg, 3 times a day.
*Standardization represents the complete body of information and controls that serve to enhance the batch to batch consistency of a botanical product, including but not limited to the presence of a marker compound at a defined level or within a defined range.
The most current available medical and scientific literature indicates that this dietary supplement should be standardized to 3% bitter principles.
Frequently Reported Uses
Other Reported Uses
- Hepatic Cancer
- Hepatitis (Acute, Chronic)
Phyllanthus preparations are reported safe in recommended dosages.(7
If an allergy develops, discontinue use.
Use in pregnancy has not yet been determined.
This herb has been reported in vitro to down-regulate the transcription of hepatitis B virus mRNA.(8
) Phyllanthus amarus
was reported to inhibit hepatitis B virus polymerase activity, decrease episomal hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA content, and suppress virus release into culture medium.(9
) Phyllanthus preparations have been reported to have a remarkable HBV suppressing effect with a serum conversion rate for HBeAg and HBV DNA around 45%, similar to that of IFN-alpha.(12
) Preliminary human research in HBV has been conflicting.(13
) One laboratory study reported that 60% of the carriers lost HBV during the observation period.(16
) There is no data regarding Phyllanthus species in the treatment of hepatitis C. Phyllanthus may help decrease the amount of hepatitis B virus found in the blood stream, but has not been reported to remove all of the virus, however, and should not be considered a cure and medical assistance should always be sought in hepatitis infections. Phyllanthus has also been reported to have antimalarial activity in laboratory mice infected with the parasite.(17
One study with 57 human subjects reported that the powder of Phyllanthus amarus did not significantly reduce the duration of jaundice in persons with virus B hepatitis.(18) However, there is current concern that not all species of phyllanthus have equal activity against hepatitis B, with Phyllanthus niruri and Phyllanthus urinaria having more activity than Phyllanthus amarus against hepatitis B.(19),(20)
A laboratory study with the administration of an aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus was found to significantly increase the survival of animals with hepatocellular carcinoma.(21) Phyllanthus amarus administration was also reported to be ineffective in controlling the liver weight, elevation of tissue gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase of hepatocellular carcinoma harboring animals.
It was reported that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced increase of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and elevation of MDA in liver of mice are significantly lowered by Phyllanthus urinaria in vivo, and the co-incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with Phyllanthus urinaria in vitro significantly inhibits CCl4-induced decrease of mobility of membrane of liver cells and increase of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentrations of liver cells.(22) These results suggest that the anti-lipid peroxidation effect and protective action of membrane of Phyllanthus urinaria may be related to its protective action against CCl4-induced liver injuries.